Schumpeter Discussion Papers
It is assumed, that differences arise multifactorial, and can be explained through migration-related factors but especially through socio-economic factors. To provide a better understanding of health care utilisation of migrants it might be necessary to set the focus on socio-economic factors. In addition a differentiated measurement of cultural and migration-related factors is needed in future studies.
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- The German ECEC System;
The universally binding mandate in the German early childhood education and care system. The German legislation states universally binding objectives for public early childhood education and care services.
Under the Child and Youth Welfare Services Act, centre-based early childhood education and care and family day care services are to:. Early childhood services support children in all areas of their development. However, these services not only enable children to enhance their cognitive and non-cognitive skills, they also enable parents to improve their work-life balance see Section 22 subsection 3 SGB VIII.
Early education in centre-based settings and family day care is characterised by a holistic approach and reflected in the deeply intertwined concepts education, care and upbringing. This holistic approach is shaped by the traditions of early childhood educational research and practice. The concept of 'upbringing' means all pedagogical activities and behavioral patterns of adults in their responsible interaction with children.
In international comparison, the concepts 'education, care and upbringing' mark a key feature and strength of the mandate implemented by early childhood services in Germany. The government of the Federal Republic of Germany sets a statutory framework that includes binding objectives and principles. Thus, all 16 federal states have specific laws and regulations, which legally regulate early childhood education and care services in the respective federal states e. These laws define the tasks and goals of early childhood education and care services, for example, how many places are required, whether new early childhood services need to be established, what material resources should be available and how the services should be organised.
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Regulations concerning staff-child ratios or room dimensions can differ widely between the federal states. An overview of early childhood education and care laws in the 16 federal states can be found at the Eduserver Deutschen Bildungsserver. The municipalities are responsible for planning and implementing early childhood education and care services at local level.
They are also responsible for a large part of the funding of these services. The above described division of responsibilities for early childhood education and care services is based on the idea of decentralised management, thereby strengthening the responsibility and independence of smaller state units or individuals and avoiding state paternalism.
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Both laws grant children from one year onwards the legal right to attend an early childhood education and care centre or a family day care service. Against the background of the ongoing quantitative expansion of ECEC services in Germany questions regarding the assurance and development of structural as well as pedagogical quality of those services gained more and more importance.
Since the s various stakeholders in research and politics deal with this issue. Within five subprojects quality criteria national criteria catalogue and evaluation procedures have been compiled and tested in practice. Those instruments and procedures, which have been constantly revised and modified, are used widely within Germany. The diversity of pedagogical concepts of ECEC settings and providers resulted in an incalculable variety of instruments and procedures of quality development and assurance.
All in all, the perspective on pedagogical work in ECEC settings as well as on quality governance in the whole ECEC sector has changed considerably during the last years. In spite of the different efforts various studies, e.
In addition, substantial regional differences can be empirically observed, mainly regarding structural quality. Such differences in quality are e. As no consent regarding a binding national quality law with nationwide applicable standards could be found in the political debate, in a quality development process was initiated on the federal level. Their task was to compile a collaboratively agreed report until November , building the professional, content-related as well as the financial foundation for a nationwide quality development process.
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The interim report " Developing and financially ensuring early education " has been presented at the 3 rd conference of the federal government and the federal states on November 5, The result of this work was a key issues paper for the elaboration of a federal law on quality development. The law is based on the interim report mentioned above.
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Hence, quality goals, like the improvement of access, child-staff-ratio, the qualification of staff or the strengthening of leadership in ECEC are central elements of this law cf. Although the law is as an important step towards improving structural quality within the ECEC system, there has been a lot of critique regarding the conception and the regulation, especially with regard to the distribution of the funding. The evaluation and monitoring of the process will be necessary to see if and how the law supports sustainable quality improvements.
Since the duration of the law is limited until , there will be the chance to readjust and change the current weak points. Part of this should be to create a sustainable and solid financial support for municipalities and providers who are in charge of implementing the quality goals. Moreover, these quality goals should be binding, now they have more the status of a recommendation linked with financial incentives if these are implemented.
Also their scope of action is quite wide, which might not always be expedient.